Twitter and Facebook are not fact-checking factually unsupported claims about mail-in voting in the 2020 election posted by President Trump on both platforms Wednesday. The inaction has angered some critics, who say these companies allow the spread of dangerous misinformation to go unchecked online, harming the integrity of the election as a whole.
Trump’s posts made the completely unsubstantiated assertion that universal vote-by-mail, a practice in which states automatically mail a ballot to all registered voters, will lead to the most “inaccurate” and “fraudulent” election in history, and then went on to suggest delaying the election “until people can properly, securely, and safely vote.”
Facebook (stylized as facebook) is an American online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California and a flagship service of the namesake company Facebook, Inc. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes.
The founders initially limited Facebook membership to Harvard students. Membership was expanded to Columbia, Stanford, and Yale before being expanded to the rest of the Ivy League, MIT, and higher education institutions in the Boston area, then various other universities, and lastly high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though this may vary depending on local laws. The name comes from the face book directories often given to American university students.
Facebook can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers, tablets and smartphones. After registering, users can create a profile revealing information about themselves. They can post text, photos and multimedia which is shared with any other users that have agreed to be their “friend”, or, with a different privacy setting, with any reader. Users can also use various embedded apps, join common-interest groups, buy and sell items or services on Marketplace, and receive notifications of their Facebook friends’ activities and activities of Facebook pages they follow. Facebook claimed that it had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018, and it was the most downloaded mobile app of the 2010s globally.Facebook has been subject to extensive media coverage and many controversies, often involving user privacy (as with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal), political manipulation (as with the 2016 U.S. elections), psychological effects such as addiction and low self-esteem, and content such as fake news, conspiracy theories, copyright infringement, and hate speech. Commentators have accused Facebook of willingly facilitating the spread of such content.
Facebook and Twitter fail to fact-check Trump's latest claims about …
Twitter () is an American microblogging and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as “tweets”. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software (“app”). Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world. Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but was doubled to 280 for non-CJK languages in November 2017. Audio and video tweets remain limited to 140 seconds for most accounts.
Twitter was created by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in March 2006 and launched in July of that year. By 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as “the SMS of the Internet”. As of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Top Republican and Democrat legislators quickly shut down Trump’s suggestion that the US should delay the election, something the president would need the Democrat-controlled House of Representatives’ approval for. It would be illegal if he tried to delay the election using his own authority.
Meanwhile, as my Vox colleague Ian Millhiser has explained, there is no substantial evidence that voting by mail will lead to inaccurate or fraudulent results. In fact, Oregon has only seen about a dozen cases of fraud out of 100 million mail-in ballots in the past two decades. Trump has nevertheless made a habit of casting doubt on the legitimacy of mail-in voting. The president’s latest comments are part of a larger pattern of him attacking the integrity of the 2020 election by making untrue statements on the matter.
Facebook and Twitter fail to fact-check Trump's latest claims about …
So why aren’t Facebook and Twitter doing anything about the misinformation in Trump’s latest post?
A spokesperson for Facebook told Recode that the company won’t take action because of its long-standing policy of not fact-checking politicians. (The company did place a link to voter registration information underneath Trump’s post, something it does for all posts about voting in the election.) The hands-off policy toward moderating politicians is in line with CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s philosophy of making Facebook an open platform for discussion and not being an “arbiter of truth” on political matters. This is something civil rights organizations, advertisers, and even some of Zuckerberg’s own employees have increasingly decried.
Twitter, however, does reserve the right to fact-check politicians under its misinformation policies. In May, the company placed a warning label over a pair of Trump posts falsely claiming that mail-in voting in California would lead to fraud. When Recode asked Twitter why the company fact-checked Trump on his earlier post containing false claims about mail-in voting but failed to do so this time around, a spokesperson for the company told Recode that, under the company’s policies, Twitter does not take down “broad, non-specific statements” about the integrity of elections or civic processes.
Social media companies’ inaction on the posts was swiftly met by resistance from civil liberties groups such as Color of Change and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund.
Similarly, Jesse Lehrich, the co-founder of the nonprofit Accountable Tech, which is pushing Facebook to tighten its rules on harmful speech, warned that by doing nothing social media companies could exacerbate the problem of misinformation online. “Platforms should immediately remove — or clearly label and limit the reach of — this morning’s post and implement election misinformation policies that are responsive to the threats we face,” Lehrich said in a statement.
It’s understandable why tech companies like Facebook and Twitter don’t want to be seen as overly meddling in political issues, as this could invite complaints that they’re favoring one side over the other. In a congressional hearing on antitrust on Wednesday, Republicans hammered Zuckerberg as well as Google CEO Sundar Pichai for alleged “anti-conservative bias.” To support these accusations, the lawmakers offered shaky evidence, including the removal of harmful conspiracy theories promoted by Trump and his family related to the coronavirus.
Trump’s recent statements also come at a time when his administration is facing accusations of hindering the United States Postal Service. While the USPS has long been struggling, particularly during the pandemic, it’s faced new reports of financial strain under a new, Trump-appointed postmaster general, Louis DeJoy. Under DeJoy’s leadership, the USPS has reportedly been planning to delay mail delivery and slash post office hours to save money.
One thing that his latest posts made clear is that Trump is escalating his attacks on the legitimacy of the US election process via social media — which, if it translates to real-world action, could send the country into what many have argued is dangerous and potentially constitutional-crisis territory. The question for Facebook and Twitter is to what extent they will continue to be hands-off.
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